Secretaries' Group on Indigenous Affairs Annual Report 2006–2007
Table of contents
- Members of
Secretaries'Group on Indigenous Affairs
- Early childhood development and growth
- Early school engagement and performance
- Postive childhood and transition to adulthood
- Substance use and misuse
- Functional and resilient families and communities
- Effective environmental health systems
- Economic participation and development
- Programmes across all strategic areas
- Glossary of acronyms
On 27 May 2007, Australia celebrated the 40th Anniversary of the 1967 Referendum, which allowed the Commonwealth Government to make laws on behalf of Aboriginal Australians and to count Aboriginal people in the census. 2007 also saw the 50th Anniversary of the creation of NAIDOC. These important achievements in Indigenous affairs demonstrated that it is possible for significant change to be achieved in the way that government works with Indigenous people to pursue better outcomes. However, the release of the third Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage: Key Indicators report (also in May 2007) highlighted the ongoing disadvantage experienced by many Indigenous Australians.
To address the ongoing level of disadvantage the Secretaries' Group gave particular priority during 2006-07 to early childhood development, safer communities and economic development. Examples of real achievements in these areas in 2006-07 include the successful Petrol Sniffing Prevention Strategy in remote Australia involving collaboration between government and business. Another good example is increased funding for housing and house maintenance in Indigenous communities which will help to address a key cause of much of the disadvantage experienced by Indigenous Australians.
The Secretaries' Group also continued its efforts to encourage and improve the accessibility of services for Indigenous people. While many indigenous specific programmes are still delivered by the Australian Public Service (APS), ensuring mainstream services are relevant and accessible to all Australians is a critical step towards delivering better services to Indigenous people.
As a critical element of improving service delivery, the APS also continues to assess and refine the design and delivery of programmes for Indigenous people. The evaluation of specific programmes, in conjunction with strong policy coordination by the Secretaries' Group and ongoing efforts to reduce red tape, aim to make a real difference to Indigenous people. In 2006-07, evaluations included reviews of Indigenous Coordination Centres and Shared Responsibility Agreements. Lessons learned from the challenges faced and mistakes made along the way in such programmes provide the opportunity to build the capacity of the APS to achieve better outcomes for Indigenous Australians. In 2006-07, another important capacity-building step was the adoption of Reconciliation Action Plans by Commonwealth Departments.
In building the capacity of the APS, Secretaries place a strong emphasis on the need to consult with key stakeholders. I was very pleased that in 2006-07 the group worked more closely with the National Indigenous Council (NIC). Through this closer relationship, the NIC was also able to consult across the APS in order to generate and develop its ideas. Consultation such as this also raises the awareness across the APS of some of the broader issues affecting Indigenous Australians.
Learning and planning for the future has been one of the drivers of change encouraged by the Secretaries' Group in order to ensure success. The progress made in the last year demonstrates that positive steps can be made, but a great deal of work still lies ahead. The long term commitment to improve the lives of Indigenous people is one that the APS recognises and accepts. On behalf of the Secretaries' Group I would like to acknowledge the hard work and dedication of those who have worked over the last year to address Indigenous disadvantage. Some of their achievements are outlined in the following pages.
Dr Peter Shergold
Secretaries' Group on Indigenous Affairs
Secretaries' Group on Indigenous Affairs Annual Report 2006–2007
Membership of the Secretaries' Group on Indigenous Affairs
Dr Peter Shergold AC (Chair)
Secretary, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet
Mr David Borthwick PSM
Secretary, Department of the Environment and Water Resources
Dr Peter Boxall AO
Secretary, Department of Employment and Workplace Relations
Ms Lynelle Briggs
Public Service Commissioner
Mr Robert Cornall AO
Secretary, Attorney-General's Department
Mr Wayne Gibbons PSM
Associate Secretary, Office of Indigenous Policy Coordination
Ms Jane Halton PSM
Secretary, Department of Health and Ageing
Dr Jeff Harmer
Secretary, Department of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs
Dr Ken Henry AC
Secretary to The Treasury
Ms Lisa Paul PSM
Secretary, Department of Education, Science and Training
Ms Patricia Scott
Secretary, Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts
Mr Michael Taylor AO
Secretary, Department of Transport and Regional Services
Ms Helen Williams AO
Secretary, Department of Human Services
The whole-of-government approach in Indigenous Affairs was established in 2004. The Secretaries' Group on Indigenous Affairs has overseen implementation of the whole-of-government arrangements and includes the key departments and agencies with a major role in addressing Indigenous disadvantage. This approach has made government agencies more accountable for services and ensures that Indigenous specific and mainstream programmes operate in an effective and complementary way. The arrangements were designed to address the unacceptably high level of disadvantage faced by Indigenous people.
In 2006–07, the Australian Public Service (APS) focused on reviewing and monitoring the effectiveness of the arrangements and building on the lessons learnt over the last three years. This was an historic year for Indigenous people who celebrated the 40th anniversary of the 1967 referendum in which more than 90% of eligible Australians voted to count Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians in the national census of the population. The referendum also resulted in the Commonwealth acquiring the power to make specific laws in relation to Indigenous people by removing the exclusionary reference to Indigenous people.
However, the challenge of overcoming disadvantage experienced by many of the 517,2001 people who identify themselves as Indigenous people remains. In May 2007, the Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision released its third Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage: Key Indicators report. The report found that while there has been progress in overcoming the disadvantages that many Indigenous people experience, Indigenous people continue to do worse than other Australians.
The report is framed around three priority outcomes:
- positive child development and prevention of violence, crime and self-harm
- safe, healthy and supportive family environments with strong communities and cultural identity
- improved wealth creation and economic sustainability for individuals, families and communities.
By identifying the performance of key Australian Government programmes which broadly address the priority outcomes outlined above, this report aims to provide transparency on progress towards overcoming disadvantage for Indigenous Australians.
Key achievements in 2006–07
In 2006–07, the situation of the most vulnerable-children, young people disengaged from education and employment, women and older people living in remote Aboriginal communities-has been a focus of attention by the APS and the Secretaries' Group. Secretaries have also worked to continue implementing reforms and programmes which commenced in previous years, including to streamline service delivery, reduce red tape and build Indigenous wealth and opportunity.
During the year, the group also consulted on key issues facing Indigenous Australians with the National Indigenous Council (NIC), which was established in 2004 to provide expert advice to the government on Indigenous issues. In 2006–07, the NIC and Secretaries' Group instituted biannual joint meetings to discuss mutual priorities such as enhancing Indigenous economic independence and accessing mainstream services by Indigenous Australians.
Early childhood development
Helping to build better environments which support early childhood development and functional and resilient families requires more than increased investment in new infrastructure. It is about helping people create the opportunity for social and generational change by providing better health care and education opportunities.
To help children aged 0–5 years have the best possible start in life, practical assistance to families and communities is being provided through the Communities for Children initiative. This is breaking new ground by setting national high-level policy outcomes while enabling communities to implement appropriate place-based local systems. It recognises that a whole-of-community approach to the planning, implementation and delivery of activities provides stronger outcomes for children and families.
A healthy start in life is clearly an essential building block for achieving successful early childhood development. Improving antenatal care and birth weight is a strong focus for the Healthy for Life initiative, a four-year programme implemented during 2006–07. Good nutrition is also being supported through Outback Stores which will develop partnerships with Indigenous communities to deliver long-term sustainable retail stores where the community can have access to fresh and affordable food. Child health checks including hearing assessments-focusing on hearing loss caused by middle ear infection-will help to alleviate learning problems associated with hearing loss later in life.
Indigenous housing and infrastructure
Adequate housing is an essential building block for improved living standards for Indigenous children, particularly for the achievement of decent health, education, employment and community safety outcomes. Many Indigenous people in remote Australia suffer from unacceptable levels of substandard housing, overcrowding and homelessness.
In 2006 an independent review of the Community Housing and Infrastructure Programme (CHIP) was conducted,2 which recommended major reform to the programme's administrative arrangements. Data from the 2006 Community Housing and Infrastructure Needs Survey3 also showed that despite a significant investment of $1 billion in the last five years, only limited improvements to Indigenous housing stock had occurred. The housing stock requiring major repair had also increased.
In response to these findings the Australian Government announced a significant Indigenous housing and infrastructure reform package as part of the 2007–08 Budget. At the centre of these reforms was the replacement of CHIP with a new Australian Remote Indigenous Accommodation (ARIA)4 programme.
Families and communities are the building blocks of our society. For a community to thrive, the family unit must feel safe and protected from harm. Children need to be supported in functional and resilient families that are healthy, free of violence and culturally vibrant.
On 14 July 2006, the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) reaffirmed its commitment to a collaborative approach to addressing family violence and child abuse in Indigenous communities, particularly in the areas of policing, justice and governance. The Australian Government made available $130 million over four years to improve community safety. Actions undertaken in 2006–07 include strengthening law and order with a commitment of $47 million in capital assistance to build police infrastructure such as police stations, facilities and housing that will be owned and operated by state and territory governments.
To support victims of crime, $6 million was committed from the Family Violence Partnership Programme to fund safe houses and support groups under the Safe Places Initiative through to 2008–09. Other elements of the package included funding drug rehabilitation and sniffer dogs for crime intelligence gathering in Indigenous communities.
The Petrol Sniffing Prevention Strategy is a whole-of-government approach to tackle petrol inhalation in the central desert region of Australia. It includes an eight-point plan to address supply and trafficking, as well as funding to support measures aimed at prevention and treatment.5 Research indicates that the roll-out of Opal fuel has been extremely successful, with some reports estimating that petrol sniffing has been reduced by up to 95% across Central Australia.
In 2006–07, the National Indigenous Law and Justice Strategy consultative draft was developed by the Attorney-General's Department. The strategy provides a framework for discussion and input for a whole-of-government coordinated approach to four key Indigenous law and justice issues across Australia. The key issues are to:
- increase actual and perceived safety
- reduce crime in communities and improve access to justice
- reduce imprisonment and juvenile detention
- reduce the impacts of family violence.
Wealth creation and economic sustainability
The focus on increasing Indigenous participation in the formal economy continued during 2006–07 by reducing dependency on passive welfare, assisting Indigenous people to obtain equity in a home, helping Indigenous Australians into sustainable jobs and providing ongoing support so that Indigenous Australians can make the most of economic development opportunities.
The Australian Government is working with industry bodies to link Indigenous communities that have high unemployment with industries that operate within their region. During the year, the government entered into memoranda of understanding with the mining, forestry and pastoral industries.
Removal of Remote Area Exemptions has been a key step in increasing participation in remote communities and improving the skills of job seekers so they are better equipped to apply for and win local jobs. To 30 June 2007, exemptions had been removed in 48 communities across Australia (plus 111 associated outstations).
Reforms to the Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP) programme over the past two years have increased opportunities for Indigenous Australians to gain education, training and work experience. In 2006–07, 5,770 CDEP participants were placed into employment. To address the cross-subsidisation in government service delivery by the CDEP programme, more than 130 community-based Indigenous health care and substance abuse worker positions were funded during the year.
Record job placements for Indigenous Australians also continue to be achieved through Job Network with over 50,100 job seekers placed into work.
The Australian Government provided $3 million in the 2005–06 Budget to enable the Cape York Institute to develop proposals to trial new approaches to welfare in four volunteer communities. The approach aims to rebuild social norms and remove disincentives for people to engage in the real economy. Following the receipt of the Institute's Design Recommendations report in May 2007, the Australian Government committed $48 million over four years in the 2006–07 Budget to support the implementation of welfare reform trials.
The adoption of financial income management strategies in communities also provides funding across Australia to increase Indigenous people's money management skills and enhance their personal and family wealth. Financial literacy helps Indigenous people save for a home, buy a car or manage rent payments.
Indigenous land reform
Land tenure reform has been pursued to facilitate individual home ownership, business development and effective management of public housing in remote areas. The many different forms of land tenure, including communal ownership, can affect the ability of Indigenous people to leverage their land assets or buy their own home.
Amendments to the Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act 1976 passed by Parliament on 17 August 2006 included changes to allow for individual land ownership through a 99 year township lease of Aboriginal land in the Northern Territory. Further amendments were made in June 2007 to establish a statutory officer, the Executive Director of Township Leasing, to enter into and hold township leases on behalf of the Australian Government. On 15 May 2007, the Australian and Western Australian governments announced a $112 million package for a range of initiatives to improve conditions for Indigenous people in Western Australia. The jointly funded package supports a number of place-based initiatives that specifically target the needs of each individual community.
Increased access to mainstream programmes
Mainstream programmes are universal services delivered by governments for the benefit of all Australians. In the past, Indigenous people have made little use of mainstream programmes and this has stretched resources in Indigenous specific programmes. Mainstream services need to provide a culturally appropriate service for Indigenous people.
Secretaries and their departments evaluate mainstream programmes to ensure that services are tailored appropriately for Indigenous people. During 2007, FaCSIA, as the lead agency in Indigenous affairs, developed a departmental framework for mainstreaming, which seeks to improve Indigenous outcomes by ensuring that Indigenous Australians have equitable access to government programmes. A mainstreaming framework will help staff determine where improvements in Indigenous access and outcomes are needed, and provide a strategy for implementing changes to the design of payments, state and territory agreements, grant programmes and ex-gratia payments, to ensure improved access for Indigenous Australians.
During 2006–07, the Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) conducted an audit of four mainstream government departments to assess how they were implementing the 2004 Indigenous affairs arrangements. The ANAO found that the mainstreaming of Indigenous services has provided Australian Government departments with the opportunity to develop more integrated solutions to entrenched Indigenous disadvantage and that reforms of major Indigenous specific programmes are taking place in employment and housing.
Streamlining service delivery through reduced red tape
In 2005–06, the Secretaries' Group identified that unnecessary red tape was adversely affecting small providers and organisations in regional and rural Australia and that there were inconsistencies in funding application, performance and financial reporting processes across programmes. These findings informed a review and subsequent reforms of programme administration in 2006–07 as well as enhancements by FaCSIA to its online funding management system.6 Further reforms to governance arrangements include consideration of the roles and responsibilities for both programme managers and the people managing funding agreements on the ground.
Learning where we can do better and finding new and innovative ways of delivering government services is a fundamental role for the Secretaries' Group. The synopsis of the whole-of-government evaluations of the eight COAG trials was published in January 2007 and provided a mechanism for learning what is working and where government needs to focus attention. The aim of the COAG trials was to explore new ways for governments to work together and with communities to address the needs of Indigenous Australians. Evaluations are available from the Office of Indigenous Policy Coordination.
The Office of Evaluation and Audit (Indigenous Programmes)
The Office of Evaluation and Audit (Indigenous Programmes) (OEA) was established under the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Act 2005 to advise the Australian Government on the management and performance of its programmes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people7. In 2006–07, OEA finalised one evaluation and nine performance audits. At 30 June 2007, there were four evaluations and six performance audits in progress.
Indigenous Coordination Centres (ICCs)
ICCs facilitate coordinated and customised delivery of Indigenous services and negotiate regional and local arrangements and agreements for effective partnerships and shared responsibilities. The successful operation of ICCs is based on good communication between ICC managers, agency staff and programme managers, and their communities. During 2006–07, a whole-of-government working partnership protocol was developed to ensure effective communication between all Australian Government agencies involved in the ICCs to provide better coordinated service delivery to Indigenous communities.
An independent review of the ICC model was undertaken in 2006–07 to examine the first two years following the implementation of the new arrangements in Indigenous affairs8. The findings of the evaluation were encouraging and indicated broad support for the ICC model.
Shared Responsibility Agreements
Shared Responsibility Agreements are voluntary agreements between governments and Indigenous communities. In return for discretionary benefits from the government, Indigenous communities make specific commitments to achieve identified goals.
The Shared Responsibility Agreements Implementation Review9was undertaken from May to June 2007. The review found that the majority of people in communities have embraced the agreements and saw them as a significant new way of working with government to address issues in their communities.
The development of Shared Responsibility Agreements is supported by the Flexible Funding Pool (FFP), a cross-agency pool of $75 million provided in the 2006–07 Budget over four years. The FFP also aims to help reduce Indigenous disadvantage through Regional Partnership Agreements, joint interventions and agreements with state and territory governments and other priority interventions.
Regional Partnership Agreements use coordinated service delivery to improve the situation of Indigenous people. They can contain a broad statement of priorities and principles, but may also be used to underpin a specific regional strategy agreed between government and the community.
The development of SRAs enables Indigenous families and communities to work directly with governments under the principle of shared responsibility for achieving agreed outcomes. Ground-breaking solutions to locally identified problems are brokered through the network of ICCs using a range of funding sources. At 30 June 2007, four Regional Partnership Agreements and 260 Shared Responsibility Agreements had been signed with 197 Indigenous communities.
Funding for Indigenous Programmes
During the year the Secretaries' Group again helped develop a single Indigenous Budget submission to coordinate and focus Australian Government investment where it will have the most effect.The 2007–08 Indigenous Affairs Budget10 provided $3.5 billion across 26 initiatives. It involved $815.7 million of additional funding over five years for remote housing, early childhood, new education opportunities, health and economic independence. These measures have a net fiscal balance impact of $748.3 million.
Informing generational reform
In July 2006 COAG agreed that long-term generational commitment is needed to overcome entrenched Indigenous disadvantage. It established a national working group to develop a proposal to significantly close the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians over a generation. An important aspect of Indigenous generational reform is building a cumulative body of evidence about what works to improve policy and service delivery. At its meeting on 13 April 2007, COAG agreed to establish an Indigenous generational reform clearinghouse which would gather and disseminate reliable information about best practice and success factors. The clearinghouse is estimated to cost $1 million a year.
The reporting framework
The remainder of this annual report uses the reporting framework from the 2007 Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage: Key Indicators report, which is divided into seven strategic areas for action. Each of the chapters addressing these seven strategic areas highlights developments in key Australian Government programmes that have occurred in Indigenous affairs in the past year.
The chapters cover:
- early childhood development and growth
- early school engagement and performance
- positive childhood and transition to adulthood
- substance use and misuse
- functional and resilient families and communities
- effective environmental health systems
- economic participation and development
- programmes across all strategic areas.
On 21 June 2007, the Australian Government announced the Northern Territory Emergency Response. The Secretaries' Group will be monitoring this closely.
Although it is clear that there is still some way to go, much achievement and learning has taken place. The Secretaries' Group appreciates the collaboration of APS staff and Indigenous peoples and service organisations throughout 2006–07. We remain committed to, and accountable for, achieving a higher standard of living for Indigenous Australians.
1. Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2007. Population Distribution Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. ABS Cat. No. 4705.0. Canberra: ABS. p 5.
2. The final report of the CHIP review, Living in the Sunburnt Country, was released publicly in March 2007.
3. Conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics.
4. Programme funding of $1.6 billion over four years from 1 July 2008–09.
5. This strategy is a collaboration between the Australian, South Australian, Western Australian and Northern Territory governments.
6. The reforms make it easier for service providers and organisations to do business with the government by providing consistent processes, expectations and requirements across programmes and locations while maintaining appropriate standards of accountability and monitoring.
8. The first stage of the review comprised a diagnostic evaluation of a sample of eight ICCs (Perth, Kalgoorlie, Ceduna, Wagga Wagga, Sydney, Darwin, Alice Springs and Rockhampton).
9. The first stage of the review consisted of a literature review and analysis of the 80 individual Shared Responsibilty Agreement reviews that had previously been completed. The second stage of the review looked at the approach taken to implement Shared Responsibility Agreements in a sample of three ICCs.
Early childhood development and growth
For any generational change to occur in Indigenous communities, government programmes must start with helping parents receive the appropriate level of health care for their children. It is essential to give a young child (birth to three years old) a healthy start in life. Of all births registered in Australia in 2005, 5%-or 12,100-were Indigenous.
Infant mortality rates have decreased over recent years and the survival of infants in their first year of life is generally viewed as an indicator of the general health and wellbeing of the local population. Low birth weight and hearing impediments are important as they can diminish a child's capacity to learn and socialise. This in turn can contribute to future learning disadvantage and poor health outcomes.
The key programmes that contribute towards this strategic area include initiatives that strengthen parenting skills in families and communities to help build their resilience and support networks, especially those at risk of abuse or neglect. Child care facilities and services are also supporting early childhood development and growth and promoting early school engagement and performance.
- Over the period 2001–04, the perinatal death rate of babies born to Indigenous mothers declined significantly (from 16 to 11 per 1,000 births).
- Average birth weights and proportions of low birth weight babies to Indigenous mothers did not change between 1998–2000 and 2002–04.
- In the 12 months from May 2006 to the end of April 2007 there were 5,347 of the new Medicare-funded Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander child health checks conducted nationally.
Healthy for Life
Healthy for Life, announced in the 2005–06 Budget, provides $102.4 million over four years for over 80 primary health care services to improve the quality of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander child and maternal health services and chronic disease care.
These primary health care services are participating in the Healthy for Life programme through 53 sites. Over 80% of services are located in regional or remote areas and 20 sites are in areas with few or no Australian Government provided health services.
Healthy for Life includes Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations and mainstream services. All participating services in Healthy for Life are expected to enhance and implement improved working relationships with other health service providers. Thirteen state and territory health services and three Australian Divisions of General Practice (now called the Australian General Practice Network) are now participating in the programme.
Healthy for Life's expected outcomes in 2005–09 include:
- increases in first attendance for antenatal care in the first trimester and in mean birth weight to within 200 grams of the non-Indigenous population
- 10% increase a year in the number of adult and child health checks
- a decrease in incidence of low birth weight by 10% and a reduction in selected behavioural risk factors in pregnancy by 10%
- 30% improvement in best practice service delivery for people with chronic conditions
- 30% reduction in hospital admissions for chronic disease complications
- 30% improvement in numbers of patients with intermediate health outcomes indicators.
Expenditure 2006–07: $24.3 million.
- an outcomes evaluation framework will be in place by July 2006
- 53 Healthy for Life contracted sites selected
- 32 additional Indigenous health scholarships awarded.
Australian Hearing Specialist Programme for Indigenous Australians
The Office of Hearing Services, which was established in 1997, regulates and administers the Commonwealth Hearing Services Programme. The Australian Hearing Specialist Programme for Indigenous Australians (AHSPIA) is a Community Service Obligation category developed in recognition that at times services provided to Indigenous Australians need to be delivered differently from mainstream services.
AHSPIA focuses on providing tertiary level hearing and related services in community settings and in conjunction with Aboriginal communities and local Aboriginal health services. The government provider, Australian Hearing, has developed outreach programmes where services to Indigenous people are delivered away from mainstream hearing centres. These centres provide the basis for delivering services to Indigenous clients, including children and young adults under the age of 21 years and Indigenous Australians over 50 years, or participants in the Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP) programme or former participants in CDEP between 1 December 2005 and 30 June 2008.
The work of AHSPIA acknowledges the key message of the report Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage: Key Indicators 2003 that while the true inconvenience of hearing loss on the Indigenous population is unclear, the risk of otitis media (middle ear infections) is significantly higher for Indigenous children than for non-Indigenous children and that it is likely that hearing impediments can substantially impact on the developmental future of Indigenous children.
Expenditure 2006–07: $4.6 million.
- hearing services were provided at 171 Indigenous outreach sites compared with 129 sites in 2005–06
- 2,671 clients were seen and 3,497 services were provided.
Multifunctional Aboriginal Children's Services
The Australian Government provides funding for a number of Indigenous non-profit child care services including 33 multi-functional Aboriginal children's services (MACS). MACS provide care for preschool and school aged children and may include long day care, playgroups, outside school hours care, vacation care and cultural programmes. Care provided by MACS is culturally inclusive and may provide a range of other integrated early childhood services to support early childhood development and growth and promote early school engagement and performance.
Indigenous playgroups provide children not yet attending school with a wide range of culturally appropriate developmental and socialisation activities that are relevant to the community. The social development aims to prepare children for preschool, school and relationships within the wider community. Playgroups also provide an opportunity for families to share common experiences.
Expenditure 2006–07: $11 million.
- 33 services were funded
- approximately 1,155 child care places were provided.
Indigenous Children Programme
The Indigenous Children Programme (ICP) was formed in 2006 by a merger of the previously funded Aboriginal Islander Child Care Agencies and Indigenous Parent and Family Wellbeing programmes. The ICP aims to strengthen parenting skills in families and communities to help build their resilience and support networks, especially those at risk of abuse or neglect. The programme aims to foster social connections and create positive educational outcomes.
Expenditure 2006–07: $4.288 million.
- 34 ICP services funded.
Mobile services and toy libraries
Seventeen Indigenous mobile child care services visit regional and remote areas and may provide flexible child care sessions, playgroups sessions, vacation care, parenting and social support for families. Indigenous toy library services provide toy and video lending libraries and parent resource library services. Mobile child care services provide Indigenous children with an opportunity to mix with other children and participate in socialisation and creative activities that would not otherwise be available to them.
Expenditure 2006–07: $2.5 million.
- 17 services funded.
Smile-a-mile mobile, Northern TerritorySmile-a-mile mobile playgroup and toy library received funding in 2006-–07 for its mobile service truck, which has been decorated with brightly painted murals by the service. The mobile service receives ongoing Australian Government funding to provide a connection between mainstream services and communities living in remote areas. The Smile-a-mile mobile visits 17 venues on a 5–8 week roster, six of which are the Aboriginal communities of Acacia Larrakia, 15 Mile, Belyuen, Daly River, Kybrook Farm and Jabiru. It also visits Bathurst Island four times a year.
Early school engagement and performance
Parents of Indigenous children need to be involved in ensuring their children get a complete education. Children need to be encouraged to expand their expectations of themselves. Children of all ages will face learning difficulties if they are tired or hungry, both of which make them unable to fully concentrate on the tasks set by teachers. Regular school attendance is clearly essential for leaning.
The Australian Government is contributing to improved educational outcomes for Indigenous students by assisting Indigenous children achieve Year 3 and Year 5 reading benchmarks. Indigenous literacy and numeracy is improved through supporting the creation of homework centres, partnerships involving parents and through the use of Shared Responsibility Agreements, which aim to accelerate educational outcomes for Indigenous Australians. Support is also provided to enhance the professional development and training of staff and school community leaders. Together, these initiatives aim to support improvements in school attendance to ensure Indigenous children have a chance to achieve their goals in life.
It is important to note that intervention in health and education areas are interrelated, and efforts in one may affect outcomes in another. For example, improved early childhood development may impact on school attendance in later life, which in turn could affect economic prospects.
- Indigenous students' performance for Year 3 fluctuated between 1999 and 2005 against the national reading, writing and numeracy benchmarks, with no statistically significant trend.
- School enrolment numbers for Indigenous children aged five to eight increased from 45,069 students in 2005 to 46,428 students in 2006.
- In 2006, the school participation rate for Indigenous children aged five to eight (97%) was similar to that for non-Indigenous children (94%).
Supplementary Recurrent Assistance
Supplementary Recurrent Assistance is the largest element of the Australian Government's Indigenous Education Programme. The funding is per-capita, based on the number of Indigenous students enrolled with the provider. The funding is provided to preschool, school and vocational education and training sectors. Funding is supplementary to mainstream education funding and is aimed at accelerating educational opportunities for Indigenous Australians.
Expenditure 2006–07: $135.645 million.
- 195 Indigenous education agreements in place.
Dare to Lead
The Dare to Lead project, delivered by the Australian Principals Associations Professional Development Council, is now in its third phase. The council has formed a coalition of school leaders who place priority on improving educational outcomes for Indigenous students. The project provides professional learning opportunities, promotes cultural understanding and intercultural exchange through cultural tours, school visits and access to best practice resources. At 30 June 2007, 838 new schools had become involved in the project.
Expenditure 2006–07: $2 million.
- 4,738 schools, representing half of all schools in Australia, are now involved.
Whole of School Intervention Strategy
The Whole of School Intervention Strategy has two elements-the Parent School Partnership Initiative (PSPI) and homework centres. In August 2006 an additional $5 million was announced for projects under the PSPI that would target early childhood education. The main objectives of the PSPI are to improve school readiness and school attendance, as well as increase Year 10 and Year 12 retention rates and Year 12 completion rates. Homework centres aim to provide Indigenous students aged eight years or older with a supervised environment in which they can complete their homework assignments and develop independent study skills.
Expenditure 2006–07: $27.28 million.
- 1,054 initiatives and homework centres
- 849 Parent School Partnership Initiative projects
- 205 homework centres.
What Works Project
The What Works Project provided professional development workshops to almost 20,000 teachers of Indigenous students in all states and territories across Australia with the aim of facilitating a focus on improving outcomes for Indigenous students. There are now over 50 case studies of best practice in Indigenous education on the What Works Project website at www.whatworks.edu.au, which emphasised teaching practices using the What Works materials to effect change.
Expenditure 2006–07: $1.06 million.
- 622 professional development workshops held from June 2005 to June 2007
- approximately 19,924 teachers participated.
Postive childhood and transition to adulthood
An individual's transition from childhood to adulthood is a time of both challenge and opportunity. The Australian Government is determined to assist the efforts of young Indigenous people by supporting educational outcomes from childhood education through to adulthood. It is vital for young Indigenous people to access the new opportunities resulting from the past decade's strong economic growth.
Educational financial assistance is offered to Indigenous students studying approved secondary or tertiary education courses and the government provides schools and institutions with funding for strategies to improve access, participation, retention and the success of Indigenous students.
Educational programmes target the crucial role of positive activities in building youth leadership, confidence and self-esteem. Activities supported include organised sport, arts and community group initiatives. Employment options for an individual will increase with additional education, new skills or training opportunities that enable young people to succeed and thrive in their local communities.
Employment of Indigenous people as teachers provides valuable role models for young people. By the end of 2005 the number of Indigenous teachers and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education workers in schools had risen to 3,596.
- Indigenous students' performance for Year 5 and Year 7 fluctuated between 1999 and 2005 against the national reading, writing and numeracy benchmarks, with no statistically significant trend.
- An increasing number of Indigenous students have enrolled in postgraduate and undergraduate courses between 2001 and 2006.
- Indigenous Australian apprenticeship completions increased 2,510 to 3,510 from 2002 to 2006.
Aboriginal Study Assistance Scheme
The Aboriginal Study Assistance Scheme provides a means-tested living allowance and some supplementary benefits to eligible full-time secondary and tertiary Indigenous students. Students taking less than a full-time load may be eligible for part-time secondary benefits.
Expenditure 2006–07: $155.6 million.
- 55,200 recipients in 2006
- from January to December 2006 tertiary recipients numbered 17,325
- from January to December 2006 secondary recipients numbered 37,900.
Indigenous Support Programme
The Indigenous Support Programme (ISP) provides funding to higher education institutions to help them meet the specific needs of Indigenous students.
The types of activities supported under ISP include the establishment of Indigenous support/education centres, assistance with study skills, personal counselling and cultural awareness activities.
Expenditure 2006–07: $31.7 million.
- 39 institutions received funding.
Indigenous Tutorial Assistance Scheme
The Indigenous Tutorial Assistance Scheme (ITAS) provides eligible Indigenous students with supplementary tutorial assistance at crucial stages of schooling. Elements of the scheme include in-class tuition-literacy and numeracy tuition in the classroom-as well as Year 9, 10, 11 and 12 tuition which occurs outside school time or during study periods.
ITAS can provide one year of supplementary tuition for Indigenous school students in the first year they are away from their remote community to attend school in a non-remote location or to attend a remote boarding school. Tertiary tuition funding is provided to education institutions that organise supplementary tuition for eligible students studying university award level courses and Australian Qualifications Framework accredited vocational education and training (VET) courses at the institution.
In the 2006 Budget two new elements were announced:
- Year 9 tuition, which builds on the tuition available for Year 10, 11 and 12 students
- VET tuition, available to Indigenous students undertaking VET courses which lead to the attainment of a Certificate III or above qualification.
Expenditure 2006–07: $58.624 million.
- in-class tuition agreements in place with eligible government education providers (all except the Australian Capital Territory)
- 51 agreements in place with non-government education providers for in-class tuition
- 40 institutions received ITAS tertiary tuition funding.
Indigenous Youth Leadership Programme
Progressive implementation of 200 secondary and 50 tertiary scholarships under the Indigenous Youth Leadership Programme (IYLP) continued in 2006–07. The IYLP provides young, talented Indigenous students-mainly from remote areas-with the opportunity to study at high performing schools to support and develop their academic and leadership skills. The rollout of the scholarships will continue in future years.
In May 2007 the IYLP National Education Providers Forum was attended by 32 school representatives.
In June 2007 the IYLP National Student Leadership Forum held in Melbourne was attended by 137 Indigenous students. The forum provided students with leadership experience and networking opportunities.
Expenditure 2006–07: $1.999 million.
- 126 secondary and 15 tertiary students studied with support from an IYLP scholarship
- 35 secondary schools were selected as IYLP education providers.
Indigenous Youth Mobility Programme
During 2006–07, FaCSIA continued to consolidate the Indigenous Youth Mobility Programme (IYMP). Through the IYMP Indigenous young people aged 16–24 from remote areas can, with the support of their families, relocate to one of 10 host locations to complete the qualifications they need for sustainable employment. Pre-vocational training, Australian apprenticeships, certificate courses delivered through registered training organisations and some tertiary pathways including nursing, teaching, accounting and business management, are the focus of the IYMP in recognition of a high demand for these qualifications in remote communities.
Expenditure 2006–07: $2.666 million.
- 186 young people participated in the IYMP
- two-thirds of programme participation was at Certificate III level and above.
Away from Base
Away from Base funding assists education institutions to meet the costs of travel, meals and accommodation for students or staff away from their normal place of residence as part of a ‘mixed mode' course of study (a combination of distance and face-to-face education).
Expenditure 2006–07: $33.837 million.
- 33 agreements in place with education providers.
The Sporting Chance programme provides funding for school-based sporting academies to engage young Indigenous people in a range of sports and activities. The aim of the initiative is to use sport as motivation to improve the educational outcomes of Indigenous students, particularly those deemed at risk of an early exit from school.
Thirteen academies began operating from early in the first school term of 2007. One academy is in the Northern Territory, one in South Australia, three in Western Australia, four in Queensland and four in New South Wales. The academies cater for both male and female students and cover a number of sports, their related activities and educational activities such as life skills, mentoring, leadership, career planning and vocational training. The academies work in partnership with support from the Australian, state and territory governments, sports bodies, community groups and business.
Expenditure 2006–07: $1.244 million.
- more than 1,600 Indigenous secondary school students participated in 13 academies nationally.
National Indigenous Cadetship Project
The Australian Government is committed to providing development and career opportunities to Indigenous Australians by actively participating in the National Indigenous Cadetship Project, which is a feature of the Australian Government's Indigenous Employment Policy and is sponsored by the Department of Employment and Workplace Relations.
The cadetship involves a minimum 12-week training placement during each year of study, aimed at providing valuable on the job work experience in preparation for full-time employment. At the completion of studies, and subject to satisfactory performance during the cadetship, the cadet will be offered full-time employment at the APS 3 level. Those cadets who have demonstrated appropriate qualities during their cadetship may be offered a position on the department's Graduate Development Programme.
Tiwi College Construction
The Australian Government has contributed $13.9 million towards the construction of a new community managed boarding college for 200 secondary students across Year 7 to Year 12 in the Tiwi Islands, to be located at Pickertaramoor, Melville Island.
Construction of the college commenced mid-2007 for initial intake at the beginning of the 2008 school year. Students in the Tiwi Islands have had limited options for secondary schooling and need to go to boarding schools on the mainland to complete Year 11 and Year 12, which often leads to high drop-out rates.
National Indigenous Development Centre
Each year, more than 5,000 young Indigenous people from across Australia will benefit from the Indigenous Land Corporation's (ILC) strategic acquisition in October 2006 of the former Redfern Public School site.
The 1.63 hectare site was purchased from the New South Wales Government for $14.8 million and is being redeveloped as the National Indigenous Development Centre, which will provide education, sporting and leadership development programmes for thousands of young Indigenous people.
The centre will provide affordable accommodation and dining facilities for up to 100 people, a sports training field, multi-use classrooms and a 25-metre outdoor heated pool.
Substance use and misuse
The Australian Government is determined to reduce the harm caused by substance use and misuse in Indigenous communities.
The consequences of substance use and misuse for an individual can be devastating, such as poor parenting, neglect of children, violence, imprisonment and sexual abuse. Alcohol and tobacco use are significant contributors to the 17-year life expectancy gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.
The Australian Government is developing strong law and order policies that are targeting issues of supply and availability of harmful substances, and efforts are in place to support families and communities in addressing substance issues as well as preventing substance use through education and diversionary programmes.
- In 2006–07 research indicates that the rollout of Opal fuel has been extremely successful, with some reports estimating that petrol sniffing has been reduced by up to 95.0% across central Australia.
- In 2004–05 the substances most commonly used were marijuana (22.5%), amphetamines (7.3%) and non-medical analgesics/sedatives (6.0%).
- 28.0% of Indigenous adults living in non-remote areas reported illicit substance use in the previous 12 months. This was similar to that reported in 2002.
Petrol Sniffing Prevention Programme
The Petrol Sniffing Prevention Programme is a Department of Health and Ageing initiative that aims to reduce the incidence and impact of petrol sniffing in remote communities through the rollout of non-sniffable Opal fuel.
Evidence is revealing that Opal fuel is having a positive impact in remote communities.
The rollout of Opal fuel is one element in the Australian Government's Petrol Sniffing Strategy, a whole-of-government eight-point plan to address petrol sniffing in designated regions of Australia. Under the strategy, the department also has responsibility for communication activities, treatment and rehabilitation services in the regions where the strategy is being implemented.
Funding for new and expanded treatment and rehabilitation services in designated regions is being provided through a Council of Australian Governments initiative addressing violence and abuse in Indigenous communities.
A recent report by Nganampa Health Council found that in October 2006 there had been an 80% reduction in the number of petrol sniffers on the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Lands since the introduction of Opal fuel. A follow-up survey in May 2007 found a further 50% reduction in the number of petrol sniffers since October 2006.
The Department of Health and Ageing commissioned James Cook University to collect ongoing baseline data on the prevalence and effects of petrol sniffing. The study has collected data from 74 Indigenous communities across the country receiving or scheduled to receive Opal fuel.
Expenditure 2006–07: $6.277 million.
- an additional 42 sites commenced supplying Opal fuel, which included 16 communities, 17 service stations, six supporting organisations and three pastoral properties
- in March 2007 all 11 service stations in Alice Springs replaced regular unleaded petrol with Opal fuel
- in 2006–07 the total number of sites supplying Opal fuel was 103, including 71 communities, 29 service stations and three pastoral properties.
Tough on Drugs Indigenous Communities Initiative
The Australian Government implements a range of funding agreements under the Tough on Drugs Indigenous Communities Initiative, to help Indigenous communities develop local solutions to issues that contribute to violence, such as alcohol and drug abuse. Projects funded under this initiative address key areas for action identified in the National Drug Strategy Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples complementary action plan 2003–2009 (CAP) endorsed by the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy (MCDS). The MCDS supported a number of priority activities specifically relating to the implementation of the CAP. These activities are the:
- implementation of a national smoking cessation programme for Indigenous communities
- development of an Indigenous alcohol management programme
- improvement of Indigenous data collection
- improvement of outcomes for Indigenous communities as a result of the policing response to illicit drugs and other substances.
A review was completed in August 2006 to measure the overall effectiveness, efficiency and appropriateness of the initiative. The review found that projects have contributed to substantial gains in a number of areas, particularly workforce development, the development of quality evidence-based and culturally-secure resources, and partnerships amongst different sectors and stakeholder groups. The funding supports and enhances the whole-of-government approach to Indigenous affairs, where relations between government and communities are governed by the principle of ‘shared responsibility'.
Expenditure 2006–07: $3.8 million.
- 15 projects were funded.
Functional and resilient families and communities
Fundamental to functional and resilient families is the right of all Australians to be safe from violence and abuse. An Intergovernmental Summit on Violence and Child Abuse in Indigenous Communities, involving ministers from the Australian Government and all states and territories, was held on 26 June 2006. A $130 million package over four years included 17 initiatives that resulted in renewed efforts towards a comprehensive national response, with a particular focus on establishing law and order in Indigenous communities.
Personal safety in local communities and respect for law and order builds trust between individual members. It is the interrelationships between people in a local community that help foster a commitment to change their circumstances and work with all governments to achieve outcomes for each other. Initiatives are improving health and community safety, supporting victims of crime, promoting law reform and legal education.
Established health services and Medicare arrangements have increased funding to address areas of greatest need in communities. Additional health professionals and administrative staff have been sent to remote regions. Alternative arrangements for the delivery of pharmaceutical benefits, mental health, primary health and aged care are in place.
A strong and vibrant culture is essential for the wellbeing of Indigenous people. Funding has supported the maintenance of Indigenous languages and records that help locals identify with their community and reinforce the importance of their language to Indigenous youth. Sport and recreation funding helps community-based projects and Indigenous cultural programmes are broadcast on satellite television to a wide and diverse audience.
- Almost 30 out of every 1,000 Indigenous children aged from birth to 17 years were on care and protection orders at 30 June 2006, compared to 4.5 per 1,000 non-Indigenous children.
- From 1999 to 2006 the rate of children on care and protection orders increased for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous children in all states and territories.
- From 2000 to 2006, there was no significant change at the national level in the proportion of Indigenous prisoners with prior adult imprisonment. The rate of Indigenous deaths in prison custody has decreased from 6.0 per 1,000 Indigenous prisoners in 1995 to 1.2 per 1,000 Indigenous prisoners in 2005.
S100 supply arrangements for remote area Aboriginal Health Services
Special supply arrangements were introduced in 1999 to improve Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) access by clients of remote area Aboriginal health services. These are available to community controlled and state and territory operated Aboriginal health services. This programme links to Overcoming Indigenous disadvantage: key indicators 2005 by contributing to the alternative arrangements for the delivery of pharmaceutical benefits.
Since the programme started, expenditure on PBS medicines has increased significantly in remote Aboriginal health services. A review presented to the department in 2004 found that the programme had met its aim of improving access to PBS medicines to clients of remote Aboriginal health services and should be continued. Work is ongoing to address the recommendations of that review.
Expenditure 2006–07: $26.8 million.
- there are currently 166 Aboriginal Health Services participating in the scheme.
Health services in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities
The Australian Government committed over $287 million to fund 238 organisations to provide primary health care and substance use services to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples during 2006–07.
Indigenous-specific health service delivery
The Australian Government worked to improve access to comprehensive primary health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with a focus on rural and remote areas.
New funding through the Improved Primary Health Care Initiative provided additional health professionals and administrative staff to remote sites. The government also provided funding for the expansion of 10 multi-disciplinary teams of health professionals and the development of infrastructure to support services in rural and remote areas.
The government increased access to primary health care services through these and other programmes, resulting in over 160 additional health workers, including:
- 16 general practitioners
- 24 nurses
- 26 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers
- 235 additional other service and support positions (including other health professionals, patient transport drivers and child/youth health workers).
Over 32 new capital works projects were completed, including 14 health staff houses and 18 projects to establish new, or enhance existing, health facilities in remote areas.
Expenditure 2006–07: $371.5 million.
- 18 new or enhanced health facilities completed in remote areas
- over 160 additional health workers
- over 235 new service and support positions
- 14 new staff houses or duplexes completed in remote areas.
Social health programmes
The Australian Government continued a range of programmes to reconnect families and provide social and emotional wellbeing and mental health services to Indigenous Australians. These included the provision of Bringing Them Home counsellors, mental health services, social and emotional wellbeing regional centres and the Link Up programme.
Expenditure 2006–07: $24.1 million.
Outputs in 2006–07:
- 22 new counsellors.
Access to Medicare
In March 2007 the Department of Health and Ageing ran a series of workshops for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services with an exemption under section 19(2) of the Health Insurance Act 1973 enabling them to bill Medicare. The workshops provided information on Medicare and the major health programmes of the department with the aim of improving their use. The workshops were well attended and positively received.
Expenditure 2006–07: $18.7 million.
- an additional six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services were granted access to Medicare, bringing the total to 121.
National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Flexible Aged Care Programme
The National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Flexible Aged Care Programme provides culturally appropriate care to address the aged care needs of older Indigenous people within their community. The service is provided mainly in rural and remote areas. The 2006–07 Budget provided an additional 150 places over three years, which will bring the total number to 750. This programme is in addition to aged care provided under the Aged Care Act 1997 which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples also access.
Expenditure 2006–07: $17.6 million.
Outputs in 2006–07:
- 29 providers were funded in 2006–07.
Legal Aid for Indigenous Australians Programme
This programme funds a national network of nine service providers to deliver high quality, culturally appropriate legal services at 78 service sites accessible to Indigenous Australians. These services include information, initial legal advice, minor assistance and referral, duty lawyer assistance and legal casework services for criminal, civil and family law matters.
The Australian Government also provided funding of $1.1 million for a pilot Expensive Indigenous Criminal Case Fund to 30 June 2007. The scheme addressed the exceptional resource demands placed on Indigenous legal aid service providers when managing expensive cases. In addition, one-off grants totalling $1.847 million were provided to fund capital improvements such as building maintenance and the purchase of information technology equipment.
The Legal Aid for Indigenous Australians programme also includes funding for Indigenous test cases that promote the review of laws and administrative practices that have the effect of discriminating against Indigenous Australians. Of particular note was the case brought by the Tasmanian Aboriginal Centre against the Natural History Museum in London, England. This matter was subsequently resolved through mediation, resulting in the return of the remains of 17 Indigenous Australians held by the museum.
Expenditure 2006–07: $51.725 million.
Indigenous legal aid services provided the following services to clients:
- information, initial legal advice, minor assistance and referral (69,137)
- duty lawyer assistance (32,504)
- legal casework and representation in criminal law matters (67,903), family law matters (2,600) and civil law matters (4,070)
- 50,411 services were provided to females
- 65,830 services were provided to children (aged four to 17) and young people (18 to 24).
Indigenous Affairs Litigation Programme
The Indigenous Litigation Fund covers the Australian Government's costs of defending certain litigation relating to Indigenous affairs. It enables proper defence of the government's interests in Indigenous affairs litigation and pays for legal costs relating to litigation and some anticipated litigation matters which fall within the scope of the appropriation. This is an enabling fund for extraordinary litigation expenses and is not called upon except in rare circumstances.
Expenditure 2006–07: $74,000.
Indigenous Family Liaison Officers Programme
The Family Court of Australia has employed Indigenous family liaison officers since 1996. The role of these officers is to assist Indigenous families to access the services provided by the court and to assist court staff, including family consultants and judicial officers in their dealings with these clients. Currently Indigenous family liaison officers are located in the Adelaide, Alice Springs, Cairns and Darwin registries. They provide services to both the Family Court and the Federal Magistrates Court.
During 2006–07 a major part of the officers' work has been to provide ongoing assistance and support to the recently established Family Relationships Centres. The officers have been able to share with staff at these centres their experience of working within the family law system and the needs of Indigenous people in relation to this system.
Prevention, Diversion, Rehabilitation and Restorative Justice Programme
The Prevention, Diversion, Rehabilitation and Restorative Justice Programme diverts Indigenous Australians away from adverse contact with the legal system. It also facilitates projects that will rehabilitate and support Indigenous Australians who have been incarcerated or are in custody. The programme provides youth diversion activities, community patrols and restorative justice initiatives.
Expenditure 2006–07: $8.48 million.
Approximately 120 projects have been funded across Australia and in 2006–07 the Attorney-General's Department funded the following programmes:
- 57 youth projects ($4.566 million)
- 42 night patrols ($1.961 million)
- 14 prisoner support and rehabilitation services ($1.874 million)
- eight restorative justice initiatives ($688,000).
Aboriginal Hostels Limited
Aboriginal Hostels Limited (AHL) is funded by the Australian Government to provide safe, affordable, temporary accommodation and meals to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, particularly where there are no other suitable accommodation options.
AHL provides more than 3,000 beds through a national network of 49 company operated hostels and another 72 community operated hostels. These beds are available every night to meet the diverse needs of Indigenous people who may be in need of assistance because they are homeless, transient or in need of aged care. The hostels also provide beds to students in secondary education, tertiary education and training as well as apprentices through the Indigenous Youth Mobility Programme. The hostels provide a bed for medical care such as renal dialysis or substance use rehabilitation. Care is also offered for prison release and diversion programmes.
In addition, AHL is one of the largest employers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia.
Expenditure 2006–07: $49.8 million.
- more than 3,000 beds provided across the country each night
- more than 2.4 million meals served during the year.
Sturt Street Supported Tenancy Accommodation
The Family Violence Partnership Programme, in partnership with the South Australian Government, supports the Sturt Street Supported Tenancy Accommodation project, which provides intensive intervention and assistance to Indigenous women caught in a cycle of violence and homelessness.
The project assists Indigenous women and children frequently using emergency accommodation services interspersed with frequent periods of homelessness caused by violence in their lives. Women and children assisted in the programme develop new skills while their lives are being supported and stabilised. This enables them to establish and sustain independent tenancies and for their children to commence regular school attendance and after school activities. Improving the wellbeing of these families includes providing the means for avoiding exposure to violence and those that perpetrate violence against them.
Reports received by FaCSIA indicate that since September 2006 more than 90% of clients have moved to stable tenancies, including 13 families caring for more than 30 children.
The significance of this achievement, ‘from crisis to capacity', is more considerable, given the sensitive and difficult environment. The operational principles and methods are effective and are being recognised as a model in other regions.
Supported Accommodation Assistance Programme
The Supported Accommodation Assistance Programme (SAAP) is a joint programme between the Australian, state and territory governments providing crisis accommodation and support to people who are homeless or at imminent risk of becoming homeless.
SAAP funds non-government, community or local government agencies ranging from small stand alone agencies with single outlets to auspices with multiple outlets. These agencies provide accommodation and support services to a range of groups including families, single men, single women, young people and women and children escaping domestic violence. SAAP is a mainstream service. In 2005-06 17% of SAAP clients were Indigenous.
Expenditure 2006–07: $182.457 million.
- 1,300 agencies funded.
Family Violence Partnership Programme
The Family Violence Partnership Programme (FVPP) is an essential part of the Australian Government's commitment to tackling family violence and child abuse. The funding, in partnership with state and territory governments, supports projects aimed at achieving a sustainable reduction in Indigenous family violence and child abuse. The funding is supporting a range of project activities including safe houses, night patrols, counselling, support workers, perpetrator programmes and education programmes.
FVPP aims to:
- develop services in consultation with local communities to better address issues that contribute to violence, such as alcohol and drug use, and address causal factors to family violence, particularly socio-economic and participatory issues, to effect sustainable change
- deliver sustainable outcomes for Indigenous communities, particularly in remote and rural areas
- not duplicate current services and programmes.
Expenditure 2006–07: $11.422 million.
- 47 projects were supported.
The Family Violence Regional Activities Programme
The Family Violence Regional Activities Programme (FVRAP) is an ongoing initiative that provides practical and flexible support for grassroots projects identified by Indigenous communities as a local priority to address family violence and child abuse.
FVRAP provides support to communities across Australia and assists local communities to implement family violence strategies and responses. During 2006–07, the Minister noted the programme would move to provide three-year funding for successful funding recipients, which will help build the capacity of organisations to better respond to the needs of their communities on a sustainable basis.
Expenditure 2006–07: $4.483 million.
- 34 communities were supported.
Family Violence Prevention Legal Services
The Family Violence Prevention Legal Services (FVPLS) programme provides assistance to Indigenous Australians experiencing family violence, including sexual assault. FVPLS units provide legal assistance, court support, counselling, community education and referral services to Indigenous Australians in remote and rural areas. Services focus on all victims of family violence: women, men, children and young people.
In 2006–07 the government created a new programme, the Early Intervention and Prevention Programme. This programme is aimed at reducing the causes of family violence and associated community problems by empowering individuals through changing their behaviours and attitudes towards family violence.
The Attorney-General's Department is implementing a community legal education initiative to which the Council of Australian Governments agreed in July 2006 following the Summit on Violence and Child Abuse in Indigenous Communities in June 2006. The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission has been engaged to develop a community legal education programme and associated training resources. The programme will help combat misunderstandings about the effect of customary law and cultural practice on legal and human rights, to ensure that Indigenous Australians are informed about their legal rights and are encouraged to report incidents of violence and abuse. The Australian Government expects this four-year, $4.23 million programme to be rolled out in 15 communities across Australia by early 2008.
Expenditure 2006–07: $12.512 million.
- five new FVPLS units were established during 2006–07, taking the total number of FVPLS units to 31
- in the first three quarters of 2006–07 FVPLS units assisted 4,908 clients. The total number of occasions of service in the first three quarters of the year was 44,460 with over 55,000 occasions of service expected by the end of the financial year
- the FVPLS units provided a broad variety of services including:
- 3,158 community awareness and development activities
- 6,320 occasions of counselling, welfare and family support
- 6,627 occasions of legal assistance
- 3,343 referrals from the FVPLS unit to other Indigenous and mainstream organisations
- 6,834 referrals into the FVPLS from Indigenous and mainstream organisations
- 18,178 occasions of general telephone enquiries from clients and the public and letters written to clients.
Arwarbukarl Cultural Resources Association
The Arwarbukarl Cultural Resources Association in New South Wales has received funding since 2003 through the Maintenance of Indigenous Languages and Records programme administered by the Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts.
In 2006–07, Arwarbukarl received funding of $235,700 to continue the development of a language database used by communities and language workers for the revitalisation of Indigenous languages. This activity has received wide ranging support and recognition, fostered strong partnerships with education and business, and provides an excellent interactive tool for communities wishing to maintain their traditional language.
Arwarbukarl has been noted for its innovative work using information communication technology (ICT) in reclaiming the language of the Awabakal people of the Newcastle region. In early 2007 Arwarbukarl organised the Puliima National Indigenous Languages ICT Forum to address the ways in which new technology, particularly ICT, can assist the work of those engaged in maintaining and reclaiming Indigenous languages in Australia. Arwarbukarl has received interest from other Indigenous language centres and corporate partners.
Indigenous languages and culture
The Indigenous Culture Support (ICS) programme and the Maintenance of Indigenous Languages and Records (MILR) programme support the maintenance of Indigenous culture and languages. ICS supports participation by members of Indigenous communities in cultural activities and the transmission of knowledge and skills across generations to build sustainable communities. MILR supports the revival and maintenance of unique Australian Indigenous languages. Funding provides support for a national peak body, a network of regional languages centres and assists community -based language activities to increase awareness and appreciation of languages.
The experience from activities supported by both programmes is that involvement in cultural activities and language maintenance contributes to the mental and physical wellbeing of Indigenous Australians and has a positive impact on their communities by assisting to address broader social policy objectives (e.g. increased school attendance, decreased criminal activity and improved health outcomes).
Expenditure 2006–07: $15.6 million.
- 140 cultural activities funded
- 79 language activities funded.
Indigenous Sport and Recreation Programme
The Indigenous Sport and Recreation Programme aims to increase active participation of Indigenous Australians in sport and physical recreation activities. These activities are supported and encouraged because they improve the health and wellbeing of Indigenous Australians. They also play a diversionary role, with the potential to contribute, either directly or indirectly, to broader social goals by reducing substance abuse, increasing school attendance and creating social cohesion. The funding supports community -based sport and recreation projects, including camps, carnivals and local projects, and helps develop skills to manage sport and recreation facilities.
The Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts also contributed to a number of multi-agency agreements (shared responsibility agreements and regional partnership agreements) with Indigenous communities, under which funding was provided to address identified community needs, including for sport and recreation opportunities, in exchange for commitments from the communities to meet specified obligations. In addition, in May 2007 a three-year memorandum of understanding was signed with the Australian Sports Commission for the delivery of the Indigenous Sport Programme, including funding for Indigenous sport development officers.
Expenditure 2006–07: $11.8 million.
- employment of 28 Indigenous sport development officers
- more than 150 activities funded including 14 Shared Responsibility Agreements and one Regional Partnership Agreement.
Indigenous Broadcasting Programme
The Indigenous Broadcasting Programme (IBP) provides funding to support Indigenous community broadcasting in urban, regional and remote areas of Australia. Indigenous broadcasting helps promote language maintenance, cultural development and training in Indigenous communities. It also provides entertainment and helps disseminate health, education and other information to Indigenous communities.
In 2006–07 the IBP supported community broadcasting stations, the production of news and other content, training and media organisations and peak bodies that support and represent the sector. While the programme focuses on radio, support was also provided to the Imparja commercial Indigenous television station. A report on a review of the programme was released in May 2007 and issues for improved administration of the programme are being addressed in further consultation with the sector.
Expenditure 2006–07: $13.5 million.
- 116 operational and capital projects supported.
Backing Indigenous Ability
The Backing Indigenous Ability (BIA) telecommunications programme supports telephones, internet access, video conferencing, training and online content development for Indigenous people, primarily in remote areas.
The BIA National Indigenous Television (NITV) initiative will deliver a branded, satellite-delivered, dedicated Indigenous television service targeting the needs of Indigenous people across Australia, as well as appealing to non-Indigenous Australians. During 2006–07, NITV Ltd was established and preparation was made to launch the NITV service, initially on Imparja's narrowcast channel and subsequently on other broadcasting platforms such as community television and pay television.
Expenditure 2006–07: $3.6 million.
- 62 applications received for improved telecommunications services
- service provider engaged to upgrade 79 remote Indigenous radio services
- NITV Ltd established.
Indigenous Heritage Programme
The Indigenous Heritage Programme's (IHP) support for the identification, conservation and promotion of Indigenous heritage places enhances social cohesion, builds intergenerational links, and raises self-esteem in Indigenous communities through their involvement in meaningful heritage related activities. The programme also provides opportunities for Indigenous economic development, particularly through funding activities which contribute to heritage tourism.
The Jawoyn Association Aboriginal Corporation in the Northern Territory is an organisation that has been awarded funding under the IHP for the past few years. The association has noted that community participation in heritage projects resulted in positive changes for the community, such as a reduction in the consumption of alcohol and pride in their culture and history.
Effective environmental health systems
Effective environmental health is about providing safe and healthy living conditions. This includes better and more flexible housing options, potable water, fresh food and the safe removal of sewerage waste products.
It is widely recognised that people living in poverty tend to maximise calories per dollar spent on food and energy-dense food rich in fats, refined starches and sugars represent the lowest cost option. Healthy diets in lean meats, fresh vegetables and whole grains are more expensive. Outback Stores helps provide fresh nutritious food and an affordable price.
The Australian Government has a number of initiatives to improve environmental health, including programmes to reduce household overcrowding, building houses where they are needed most and creating increased opportunities for home ownership.
According to the report Indigenous housing indicators 2005–06 the number of Indigenous households who owned or were purchasing their home increased by almost 10,000 from 46,224 in 2001 to 56,027 in 2006, or from 32% to 34% of all Indigenous households.
- By 2006–07 the number of discrete Indigenous communities without an organised sewerage system decreased from 91 in 2001 to 25.
- The proportion of overcrowded Indigenous households fell from 14.7% in 2001 to 12.4% in 2006.
Community Housing and Infrastructure Programme and the Aboriginal Rental Housing Programme
Through the Community Housing and Infrastructure Programme (CHIP) and the Aboriginal Rental Housing Programme (ARHP), the Australian Government works in partnership with state and territory governments and Indigenous community organisations to deliver housing, infrastructure and municipal services to Indigenous Australians. In 2007 two key reports into the delivery of housing and related services to Indigenous Australians were released. Living In the Sunburnt Country-Indigenous Housing: findings of the review of the community housing and infrastructure programme was released in February 2007. This independent review of CHIP recommended fundamental reforms to the funding and delivery of Indigenous housing in Australia. The Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006 Community Housing and Infrastructure Needs Survey released in April 2007 and reissued in August 2007 revealed that despite funding of around $1 billion over five years under CHIP, housing stock had increased by only 3%, or 567 homes.
In response to the CHIP review, the Australian Government announced a significant reform package as part of the 2007 Budget. At the centre of these reforms was the new Australian Remote Indigenous Accommodation Programme (ARIA) which will replace CHIP from the beginning of 2008–09. The new programme will have additional funding of $293 million (over four years), over and above the current $380 million a year directed towards Indigenous housing. ARIA is about a new approach to Indigenous housing delivery, which will ensure:
- Australian Government resources are invested in remote locations, where the need is greatest
- Indigenous Australians receive the same levels of service and face the same obligations as non‑Indigenous Australians through the introduction of mainstream public housing arrangements
- increased opportunities for home ownership for Indigenous people through improvements to land‑tenure arrangements
- an increased focus on innovative housing designs and construction techniques, that will deliver good quality housing at a lower cost
- the building work will involve employment and training opportunities for Indigenous people at the local level
- funding is available for accommodation that is designed to meet the needs of a growing number of Indigenous Australians who need to travel for education, training or employment.
Expenditure 2006–07: $227.817 million (CHIP) and $94.4 million (ARHP).
- municipal services were delivered to over 900 Indigenous communities or outstations
- 300 new houses were constructed or acquired
- 500 houses were upgraded.
Outback Stores-a 100% owned subsidiary of Indigenous Business Australia-was recently formed to support remote Indigenous owned community stores and provide Indigenous Australians the opportunity to buy a range of healthy food and essential supplies. Outback Stores partners with Indigenous communities to deliver long-term sustainable retail stores where the community can have access to fresh and affordable food.
Expenditure 2006–07: $1.536 million.
- four stores under Outback Stores management.
Torres Strait Regional Authority
Major Infrastructure Programme Boigu Flood Mitigation
One of the Torres Strait Regional Authority's most successful programmes last year was the Major Infrastructure Programme (MIP). MIP is a joint initiative between the Australian and Queensland governments which delivers essential major infrastructure in the region, such as sewerage treatment plants, roads and drainage works and water supplies.
These works on Boigu were aimed at mitigating the adverse affects of high tides and heavy rains during the wet season. Prior to the project's delivery, areas of Boigu Island were subject to regular flooding which reduced the usefulness of the land affected and presented a major mosquito breeding hazard. To solve this problem, the community, in conjunction with MIP management, decided that it was necessary to raise the existing sea wall, upgrade existing culverts, construct a bund wall and upgrade relevant drainage works.
This project not only delivered effective flood protection infrastructure and the follow-on environmental health benefits, but also contributed substantially to capacity building of the Boigu Island Council and Boigu community members.
The council undertook the project works and gave opportunities for the local workforce to acquire new skills and improve existing skills. In total, 17 community members were employed during the project.The training required was provided by information technology employment consultants who delivered TAFE Certificates II and III to 10 participants, Certificate II in General Construction (blue cards) to 21 participants, Certificate II in General Construction to 19 participants, and certificates for operating plant and machinery to eight participants.
The project also resulted in a substantial portion of the project costs going back into the Boigu community's local economy.
Expenditure 2006–07: $500,000.
- the Boigu project achieved 15,912 hours of Indigenous employment and accredited training.
Economic participation and development
Economic participation is a key to encouraging Indigenous Australians to take part in the economic prosperity of recent years. Having a job or running a small business can empower an individual and build their local community.
The government's Indigenous Economic Development Strategy aims to increase levels of Indigenous employment, self-employment and business development and help Indigenous Australians gain and manage assets and participate in the broader economy.
Changes to the Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP) programme and increased access to a wide range of mainstream services from the expansion of Structured Training and Employment Projects and Job Network are also assisting Indigenous Australians to become economically independent.
- The number of Indigenous people in private sector employment increased from 55,410 in 2001 to 87,376 in 2006.
- In 2006–07, 167 Indigenous businesses projects were supported through the Indigenous Small Business Fund.
- At 30 June 2006, the Indigenous Business Development and Assistance Programme loan portfolio had 446 active loans for assistance to Indigenous businesses.
- In 2006–07, Job Network placed over 50,100 Indigenous job seekers into employment-a 12% increase on the previous financial year.
- In 2006–07, 5,770 Community Development Employment Projects participants were placed into unsubsidised employment.
Community Development Employment Projects
The Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP) programme provides opportunities for unemployed Indigenous Australians to develop work skills and move into employment wherever possible. Reforms to CDEP over the past two years have provided greater opportunities for Indigenous Australians to gain education, training and work experience.
Expenditure 2006–07: $556.9 million.
- 30,768 CDEP places utilised across the year within 212 CDEP organisations
- 5,770 participants placed into unsubsidised employment.
Indigenous Employment Policy
Through its Indigenous Employment Policy, the government provides a flexible suite of programmes and initiatives to assist Indigenous Australians into jobs and build demand for Indigenous job seekers with employers and industries.
Structured Training and Employment Projects (STEP) provides flexible financial assistance for projects that offer structured training leading to lasting employment for Indigenous job seekers.
The Structured Training and Employment Projects Employment and Related Services (STEP ERS) panel is a brokerage service that helps employers put in place recruitment strategies to attract Indigenous job seekers by providing a range of activities, including training and mentoring that will lead to sustainable job outcomes.
The Business Development Programme and the Indigenous Small Business Fund (ISBF) assist self-employment by supporting the development of businesses. ISBF provides funding for Indigenous organisations for activities including feasibility studies, business planning, marketing and other facilitative projects.
The Corporate Leaders for Indigenous Employment Project (CLIEP) is a partnership between individual companies and the Australian Government to generate more jobs for Indigenous Australians. Seven new private sector companies across a range of industries and locations joined CLIEP during the year. This brings the total of committed CLIEP signatories to 87.
Improved performance by CDEP providers and Job Network members has made Indigenous Employment Centres (IECs) no longer necessary. As a result, funding ceased for all IECs on 30 June 2007.
Expenditure 2006–07: $108.3 million.
- 13,700 commencements for Indigenous job seekers
- 167 Indigenous business projects supported through ISBF
- 319 STEP projects approved
- seven new private sector companies across a range of industries and locations joined CLIEP.
Developing an economic base on Indigenous land
The Indigenous Land Corporation (ILC) assists Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples to acquire and manage Indigenous-held land to provide economic, environmental, social and cultural benefits. The ILC is not Budget funded. Its primary source of funding is the 'realised real return' from the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Land Account.
Through its land acquisition and land management programmes, the ILC requires applicants to define a specific purpose and outcome for acquiring and managing land and set themselves achievable milestones and outcomes.
During 2006–07 a total of 113 Indigenous people were directly employed in ILC owned businesses, representing a 40% increase against 67 Indigenous staff employed in 2005–06. ILC businesses also provided employment and training opportunities for a further 155 Indigenous people through mechanisms such as supported traineeships, as contract employees carrying out work such as mustering, fencing, construction and pruning and through Indigenous prisoner work rehabilitation programmes.
Expenditure 2006–07: $75 million.
- 13 properties acquired at a total cost of $34.6 million
- 142 land management projects funded to carry out a range of activities including feral animal control, weed eradication, soil and water conservation, environmental land remediation, bushfire prevention work and sites of significance protection at a total cost of $22.5 million
- 14 ILC businesses, some still in their establishment phase, provided paid full-time or seasonal work, traineeships and contract work to 276 Indigenous people.
Home ownership programme
Indigenous Business Australia provides Indigenous Australians the opportunity to apply for a loan to purchase a home in major cities and towns through the IBA Homes home ownership programme.
The programme provides affordable home loans to Indigenous customers who have the capacity to repay a long-term loan but for a variety of reasons have experienced difficulty in obtaining finance from mainstream home loan providers.
Since the home ownership programme's establishment, it has helped many Indigenous families to buy their own home.
Expenditure 2006–07: $117.937 million.
- 508 new loans, enabling 1,409 Indigenous Australians to own their own homes
- total asset value of home loans portfolio grew to $478.9 million and since 1975, 12,921 families have been assisted by the programme to buy their own homes.
Home Ownership on Indigenous Land Programme
The Home Ownership on Indigenous Land Programme provides a range of housing loan products to eligible Indigenous people to help them buy their own homes on community titled land.
Expenditure 2006–07: $1.092 million.
- land tenure reforms have been slower than expected, delaying the implementation of the programme in communities.
Business development and assistance
Indigenous Business Australia improves Indigenous economic participation by offering business loans and other business support to Indigenous Australians through IBA Enterprises.
Business loans are provided to acquire, establish and develop commercially viable businesses where Indigenous people are not able to access mainstream finance. The business support is customised for each business case and is provided to clients who may not be supported by mainstream financial institutions. Indigenous Business Australia also provides assistance to evaluate business opportunities and develop an enterprise idea and training in product development, marketing strategies and networking skills.
Expenditure 2006–07: $47.202 million.
- 1,653 Indigenous Australians interested in starting a business or improving their business skills provided with information and training
- more than 700 clients received business support assistance
- 46 economic development initiatives approved
- 86 new loans worth approximately $21.6 million approved.
Indigenous Business Australia (IBA) assists Indigenous groups, families and individuals to participate in commercial enterprises through joint ventures with the private sector and IBA in a range of business sectors. IBA Investments invests in commercially viable businesses that have the potential to generate revenue, acquire capital and provide training and employment opportunities and other social benefits. IBA Investments also provides ongoing business support and mentoring to Indigenous joint venture partners, as well as economic development advice to Indigenous groups, families and individuals.
IBA has investments throughout Australia and across an extensive range of industries including tourism, mining and mine services, commercial property, fisheries, financial services, agriculture, manufacturing, retail and services.
Expenditure 2006–07: $47.270 million.
- the IBA Investments portfolio provided 957 employment opportunities of which 254 were taken up by Indigenous Australians.
Indigenous call centres
The Department of Human Services, through Centrelink, has three Indigenous call centres located in the Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia that answer around 250,000 calls annually. These Indigenous call centres provide a culturally appropriate access channel for Indigenous people, particularly those living in remote areas who may not have direct access to other Centrelink facilities. The call centres are primarily staffed by local Indigenous people, improving local labour force participation.
In early 2007 services to Indigenous customers were further enhanced to provide a national service for Indigenous people needing to contact Centrelink from anywhere in Australia.
Indigenous specialist staff
There are now over 100 specialist Indigenous staff supporting Indigenous customers both in Centrelink offices and working with local Indigenous communities to provide greater services.
Indigenous customer support officers deliver a culturally appropriate service through liaison, consultation and customer service adviser duties with Indigenous customers. They also provide specialist assistance to other Centrelink staff. Indigenous service officers (ISOs) liaise and consult with Indigenous customers and community representatives on servicing requirements and develop strategies to manage obligations. ISOs manage the strategies implemented and provide feedback to Centrelink management and staff regarding local service delivery issues.
National Arts and Crafts Industry Support
The National Arts and Crafts Industry Support (NACIS) programme provides direct funding support to Indigenous art centres and arts support organisations. The programme's overall objectives are to assist Indigenous art centres to become stronger and to build a more sustainable Indigenous visual arts industry. Strong art centres play an important role in the maintenance of culture and promotion of economic participation and development in remote communities. They also play a significant role in enhancing the functionality and resilience of these communities.
The success of the NACIS programme is reflected in the continued growth of the Indigenous visual arts industry, the sustained demand for development and seed funding and the strong response of both art centres and their support organisations to the recent parliamentary inquiry into the sector. The programme continues to operate actively in the whole-of-government environment, particularly through contributing to the development and realisation of shared responsibility agreements.
Expenditure 2006–07: $5.6 million.
- 68 activities funded.
Native Title Programme
The Native Title Programme funds native title representative bodies and native title service providers to provide professional services to Indigenous people pursuing the recognition and protection of native title under the Native Title Act 1993. By assisting Indigenous people with their native title claims, the programme helps to increase the proportion of Indigenous people with access to their traditional lands.
Expenditure 2006–07: $61.03 million.
- a total of 279 Indigenous land use agreements were registered with the National Native Title Tribunal
- 1,750 native title claims had been lodged
- 103 native title determinations made
- 417 native title activities funded in operational plans
- 29 Indigenous land use agreements lodged
- 42 native title claims lodged
- 16 native title determinations made<
- 12 native title representative bodies funded
- four native title service providers funded.
National Native Title Tribunal
The National Native Title Tribunal's key role is to work with people to resolve native title issues. This work includes the delivery of products and services to:
- assist people to understand their roles and responsibilities in the native title process and to expedite the development of agreements
- apply specialist knowledge, skills and experience to the mediation of native title claims, to mediation and arbitration of land use and development proposals, and to a range of other matters arising from native title processes.
The Tribunal also assists people to understand their roles and responsibilities in the native title process and to expedite the development of agreements. The key outcome is the resolution of native title issues over land and water, including enduring native title and related outcomes that recognise rights and interests over land and waters, in accordance with the Native Title Act 1993.
The recognition of native title may lead to agreements that provide for a range of economic outcomes covering such things as cooperative management of national parks, training and employment. The agreement-making outputs listed below reflect both the progress to resolve and actual resolution, of native title issues. In respect of the resolution of native title determination applications, approximately half were resolved by consent, as opposed to litigation. Clients' perceptions of the quality of the agreement-making process were tested by research in April 2006. The research report provided a number of recommendations to improve agreement-making processes.
The Tribunal anticipates that its programme delivery will integrate into a whole-of-government approach as it responds to the Native Title Amendment Act 2007 and develops initiatives to support and achieve outcomes in the native title system as a whole. The Native Title Amendment Act is in direct response to the Attorney-General's package of six inter-connected measures to improve the performance of the native title system and in particular the independent review of the native title claims resolution process.
Expenditure 2006–07: $32.881 million.
The Tribunal's appropriation funds one programme-the Resolution of Native Title Issues Over Land and Waters. This programme contributes to the Australian Government's Indigenous expenditure.
- stakeholder and community relations:
- nine capacity building and strategic/sectoral initiatives
- 632 occasions of assistanceand information
- 22 fully concluded Indigenous land use agreement negotiations and 284 milestone agreements
- 17 native title agreements and related agreements that fully resolve native title determination applications and 349 milestone agreements
- 114 future act agreements fully resolved as well as 64 milestone agreements.
- 56 decisions on registration of claimant applications
- 31 decisions on registration of Indigenous land use agreements
- 176 future act determinations
- 884 finalised objections to the expedited procedure.
Advancement of Rights to Land and Sea
The Advancement of Rights to Land and Sea (ARLS) funds activities that provide opportunities for Indigenous people to gain economic and social benefits from land held under Commonwealth land rights legislation. The ARLS sub-programme is delivered in consultation with relevant agencies including the Department of Transport and Regional Services and the Department of the Environment and Water Resources. Measures of performance relate to community governance, and benefits to the community from the management and use of community land and assets.
Expenditure 2006–07: $1.26 million.
- progress with land claims under the Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act 1976 and grant funding to Aboriginal corporations to assist in the performance of their statutory roles under Commonwealth land rights legislation
- significant amendments to the Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act developed and passed through both houses of Parliament
- a review of the Aboriginal Land Grant (Jervis Bay Territory) Act 1986.
Native title rights
On 28 August 2006 the Federal Court of Australia recognised the Yankunytjatjara/Antakirinja people's native title rights over about 18,665 square kilometres of mostly pastoral land north of Adelaide. This was South Australia's first determination to be settled with the agreement of all parties. Pastoralists and Indigenous Australians showed how persistence and a negotiating spirit can produce positive results in native title negotiations.
This was the 88th native title determination to be registered by the National Native Title Tribunal. Along with the determination, six Indigenous land use agreements, which deal with specific issues about the use of land over the seven pastoral leases, were also signed.
Programmes across all strategic areas
Learning where we can do better and finding new and innovative ways of delivering government programmes and services is a fundamental role of the Secretaires' Group on Indigenous Affairs.
The Council of Australian Governments' synopsis evaluation published in January 2007 was the first in a number of whole-of-government evaluations that are providing a mechanism for learning what is working and where government needs to focus attention. Findings were that:
- solutions should be responsive to local circumstances and within the parameters of a whole-of-government response
- flexible approaches need to be applied which reflect the circumstances and natures of the issues facing a community
- expectations need to be realistic and clearly understood by all parties from the outset
- whole-of-government work requires long-term commitment
- leadership at both the government and community level requires building appropriate leadership capabilities to enable new ways of working together.
Shared Responsibility Implementation Assistance Programme
The Shared Responsibility Implementation Assistance Programme enables Indigenous families and communities to work directly with governments in an innovative way under the principle of ‘shared responsibility' for achieving agreed outcomes. Ground-breaking solutions to locally identified problems are brokered through the network of Indigenous Coordination Centres (ICC) using a range of funding sources, including mainstream programmes, in whole-of-government arrangements.
To increase responsiveness to identified priorities, delegations have been devolved to the local level, allowing $100,000 to be approved by individual ICC managers and up to $500,000 by state and territory managers.
Expenditure 2006–07: $34.3 million.
- 76 shared responsibility agreements made with communities
- 63 agreements made with individuals and families, which was a 30% increase from 2005–06.
Flexible Funding Pool
Announced in the 2006–07 Budget, the Flexible Funding Pool (FFP) is part of a cross-agency pool of $75 million over four years (2006–07 to 2009–10) that aims to reduce Indigenous disadvantage through shared responsibility agreements, regional partnership agreements, joint interventions and agreements with the state and territory governments and other priority interventions.
FaCSIA is required to spend $17.5 million over four years, with a minimum target of $4.38 million annually. Funding is sourced from mainstream and Indigenous-specific programmes.
In 2006–07, the FFP exceeded the expenditure benchmark by 196%, with funding for a diverse range of activities totalling over $8.5 million. In 2007–08, the FFP will help meet the latent demand for services and support in Indigenous communities and assist mainstream programmes extend their reach into remote areas.
Expenditure 2006–07: $8.591 million.
- 49 projects were funded for a range of initiatives including:
- diversionary programmes for ‘at risk' young people
- parenting, mentoring and men's programmes
- pre-employment and other education and training
- community preparation for emergencies or evacuations
- business development
- capital works to child care, sporting and community facilities.
Family Community Network Initiative
The Family Community Network Initiative (FCNI) aims to provide Indigenous families and communities with strategies, skills and support to address circumstances leading to relationship breakdown, conflict, anti-social behaviour and substance abuse in their communities.
In 2006–07 FCNI also contributed to projects supported under the Flexible Funding Pool.
Expenditure 2006–07: $2.264 million.
- 15 projects funded.
National Indigenous Money Management Agenda
FaCSIA provided funding of $440,000 to Reconciliation Australia to develop a National Indigenous Money Management Agenda (NIMMA). The project brought together representatives of the major banks, the Australian Bankers' Association, Indigenous credit unions, Abacus (the industry body for Australian credit unions and mutual building societies), Indigenous communities, community organisations and government agencies, to develop options for delivering appropriate financial services and financial literacy education to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.
The NIMMA report will be finalised in 2007–08. It will outline challenges faced by service providers in developing and delivering their services to Indigenous people and contains actions to address these issues in the short-term. A forum of stakeholders will continue working together to implement the actions identified in the NIMMA and develop further options for the longer-term.
Expenditure 2006–07: $440,000.
Indigenous money management
Two different approaches are being used to help Indigenous people improve the way they manage their finances. In eight Cape York communities, Family Income Management (FIM) aims to develop the capacity of individuals and families to effectively manage income to achieve improved living standards. The programme operates as a partnership between FaCSIA and Cape York Partnerships and the Westpac Bank.
In six communities across the Northern Territory and Western Australia, Money Business aims to help Indigenous individuals and families make better informed decisions about managing their money. The programme operates as a partnership between FaCSIA and the ANZ Bank. Administered funding of $1.1 million was provided by FaCSIA during 2006–07.
FIM and Money Business align with Overcoming Indigenous disadvantage: key indicators 2005. The key performance indicators are to increase net assets for families and individuals, reduce debt and improve access to financial information and services. During 2006–07 a new FIM site at Cooktown was opened.
Expenditure 2006–07: administered funding of $1.322 million was provided by FaCSIA for FIM during the year.
- the number of participants in FIM is around 900, while almost 500 people participate in Money Business.
Northern Territory Indigenous Interpreter Services
Northern Territory Indigenous Interpreter Services funding maintains a programme that improves access to government services.
Expenditure 2006–07: $5.1 million.
Cape York Institute welfare reform project
This project includes $3 million to undertake research into ways that Indigenous communities interact with the welfare system and to design incentives to encourage employment and education. Another $750,000 will help maintain operation of the Cape York digital network which provides telecommunication services for many remote Indigenous communities in Cape York.
Expenditure 2006–07: $3.75 million.
Office of Evaluation and Audit (Indigenous Programmes)
The Office of Evaluation and Audit (Indigenous Programmes) (OEA) was established under the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Act 2005 to provide objective advice to the Australian Government about the management and performance of its programmes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. In 2006–07 OEA finalised one evaluation and nine performance audits. They were:
- Indigenous Education Strategic Initiatives Programme, Away from Base Evaluation (Department of Education, Science and Training)
- Indigenous Land Corporation (Department of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs)
- Indigenous Community Housing Organisations (Department of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs)
- Torres Strait Regional Authority Economic Development Programme (Department of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs)
- Telecommunications Action Plan for Remote Indigenous Communities, Community Phones Programme (Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts)
- Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service Providers (Department of Health and Ageing)
- Third Party Funding Arrangements (Department of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs)
- Native Title Representative Bodies (Department of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs)
- Community Development Employment Projects, Service Providers (Department of Employment and Workplace Relations)
- Community Development Employment Projects, Performance Information (Department of Employment and Workplace Relations)
The evaluation was published and a summary of its key findings and the performance audits are contained in the report of operations of OEA found in the Department of Finance and Administration's annual report. At 30 June 2007, there were four evaluations and six performance audits in progress. OEA reports to the Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Finance and Administration, who provides the reports to the relevant minister and the minister responsible for Indigenous affairs.
Overseas Repatriation Programme
In 2006–07 the Overseas Repatriation Programme facilitated the return of 38 Indigenous Australian human remains held in United Kingdom collections. The remains were returned to Queensland (three), South Australia (one), Tasmania (19), Torres Strait Islands (six), Victoria (one), Western Australia (two) and a further six were un-provenanced. FaCSIA, as lead agency, achieved these successful results with the support and cooperation of the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and the Attorney-General's Department.
Community leadership training for women
The Department of Transport and Regional Services has worked with communities to give young people and women in the East Kimberley region of Balgo, Ringer Soak and Mulan opportunities to participate in activities that allow them to build leadership skills and confidence. A three-day community leadership training course for 22 women provided a capacity building opportunity to emerging leaders who often carry significant responsibility for the wellbeing of their communities but are under-represented in formal leadership positions.
Individual Indigenous success stories
The programmes listed in this annual report are more than just an historic record of government expenditure in Indigenous affairs. The funding provided by all governments makes a difference every day to the 517,200 people and families who define themselves as Indigenous Australians.
The success and aspirations of these two individuals are an inspiration to us all and highlight that significant progress can be achieved through targeted assistance and the knowledge learned during the past three years.
I've been a client of Australian Hearing since the mid-1970s. I have osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease) which is a genetic disorder affecting bone strength. There are three bones in the ear, so in time hearing deteriorates and I started losing my hearing early in life. The National Acoustic Laboratories had an office in Brisbane and an assessment was done and I got a body aid. It was an antiquated, pre-historic hearing aid consisting of a box, which you put in your pocket or attached to your clothing, with a long cord to an earpiece.
My current hearing aid is fantastic. My aids now are fully digital with a graphic equaliser. They're tuned to your hearing loss, which is wonderful because it's tailored to your needs. My audiologist has been able to set up my hearing aid really well. Hearing aids are not just about making sound louder. My hearing aid has a noisy-room switch which narrows the pick-up area by utilising a second microphone to reduce the background noise. Brilliant! Conversation in a crowded room is not a problem. Wearing my hearing aid is like wearing shoes. I put it on and forget about it.
I do not want to be restricted in what I do in life. I paint contemporary Indigenous art using fluorescent and metallic colours. One of my paintings was hung at the entrance to the Caboolture Police Station. I've sold quite a few but I'm not famous yet. My philosophy is to be part of the solution not part of the problem and keep your sense of humour-focus on the positive. Be supportive, not judgmental, celebrate successes and create opportunities.
Roeina Edmund was the first Indigenous woman to graduate as an aircraft mechanic. As a single mother of five she is an inspiration to young Indigenous women who would like to pursue a career in a similar field.
The training she received has opened many doors and is providing Roeina with unlimited options in the industry. Roeina has enjoyed the hands-on tasks involved in achieving her Certificate IV in Aeroskills.
‘Even though the aviation and aerospace industry is highly regulated and everything has to be done by the book, the book doesn't teach you the feel and sound of an engine when it is running smoothly or more importantly when it is not running properly,' Roeina said. ‘That can only come from the experience I am getting with my on-the-job training.'
Appendix: Australian Government Indigenous Expenditure 2006–07
|Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry portfolio||Expenditure 2006–07|
|Commonwealth Community Legal Services Programme-Indigenous Women's Initiatives||$1,029,483.00|
|Family Violence Prevention Legal Services Programme||$12,512,264.00|
|Law and Justice Advocacy Programme||$2,477,000.00|
|Legal Aid for Indigenous Australians Programme||$51,771,343.00|
|Native Title 1||$5,944,000.00|
|Native Title Financial Assistance Payments 2||$0.00|
|Northern Territory Aboriginal Interpreter Service||$1,107,000.00|
|Prevention, Diversion, Rehabilitation and Restorative Justice Programme 3||$8,489,037.00|
|Virtual Funding Pool||$1,446,488.00|
|Australian Customs Service|
|Engage and Train Torres Strait Islanders as Marine Crew to Serve in the Torres Strait||$228,366.00|
|National Indigenous Cadetship Programme||$167,964.00|
|Australian Federal Police|
|Addressing Violence and Child Abuse in Indigenous Communities-Indigenous Task Force 4||$205,441.00|
|Addressing Violence and Child Abuse in Indigenous Communities-Joint Strike Teams||$258,723.00|
|Indigenous Affairs 5||
|Determination of Hearing of Family Disputes Involving Indigenous People||$118,782.00|
|Resolution of Family Disputes Involving Indigenous People||$356,345.00|
|Native Title Jurisdiction Matters||$8,520,388.00|
|Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission|
|National Native Title Tribunal|
|Recognition and Protection of Native Title||$28,221,000.00|
|National Indigenous Violence and Child Abuse Intelligence Task Force||$3,479,341.00|
|Connect Australia-Backing Indigenous Ability||$3,662,000.00|
|Cultural Development Programme Indigenous Art Training and Facilities||$1,000,000.00|
|Cultural Development Programme Indigenous Dance Training||$1,236,000.00|
|Virtual Funding Pool||$0.00|
|Indigenous Community Broadcasting||$670,722.00|
|Indigenous Sport and Recreation||$11,864,034.00|
|Return of Indigenous Cultural Property||$231,354.00|
|Telecommunications Action Plan for Remote Indigenous Communities||$1,022,977.00|
|Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Arts Board 6||$4,032,000.00|
|Australian Broadcasting Commission|
|Indigenous online-Programmes and Education Development||$2,552,000.00|
|Australian Film Commission|
|AFC Indigenous Programme 7||$3,069,108.00|
|Australian Film Television and Radio School|
|AFTRS Indigenous Programme Initiative 8||$100,867.00|
|Australian National Maritime Museum|
|Indigenous Acquisitions Fund 9||$233,468.00|
|Australian Sports Commission|
|Indigenous Sports Programme||$1,486,960.00|
|National Gallery of Australia|
|National Gallery of Australia||$455,545.00|
|National Museum of Australia|
|Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Programme||$1,109,798.00|
|Special Broadcasting Service|
|SBS Indigenous New Media 10||$45,000.00|
|SBS Indigenous Radio||$251,000.00|
|SBS Indigenous Television 11||$1,369,000.00|
|Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Programme||$163,000.00|
|Army Community Assistance Project||$2,357,000.00|
|Australian Defence Force Cadets -Indigenous Participation Programme||$303,000.00|
|Indigenous Liaison Officers and Review into Indigenous Heritage Issues||$764,000.00|
|Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1984||$226,606.00|
|Development of Indigenous Indicators for Measuring Natural Resource Health
in Southern Queensland 12
|Enhancing Indigenous Engagements in NRM||$366,000.00|
|Indigenous Heritage Assessment 13||$0|
|Indigenous Heritage Programme||$4,959,182.00|
|Indigenous Land Management Facilitators Programme||$1,864,949.00|
|Indigenous Protected Areas Programme||$3,119,004.00|
|Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority|
|Bureau of Meteorology|
|Indigenous Expenditure 14||$24,352.00|
|ABSTUDY Student Financial Supplement Loans 15||$0|
|Virtual Funding Pool||$2,227,525.00|
|Indigenous Education (Targeted Assistance) Amendment Act 2004||$314,359,000.00|
|Indigenous Higher Education Advisory Council||$408,000.00|
|Indigenous Staff Scholarships||$177,000.00|
|Indigenous Support Programme||$31,560,000.00|
|Infrastructure Funds for Boarding School Facilities||$50,000,000.00|
|Questacon-Indigenous Outreach Programmes||$690,000.00|
|Skilling Australia's Workforce Act 2005 (was Voc. Ed.& Training Funding Act)||$4,979,000.00|
|Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies|
|Collection Development and Management||$7,922,000.00|
|Dissemination of Information||$1,119,000.00|
|Australian Research Council|
|Indigenous Researchers Development Scheme||$596,604.00|
|Community Development Employment Projects 16||$556,908,575.00|
|Indigenous Employment Programme||$108,287,112.00|
|Virtual Funding Pool 17||$0|
|Indigenous Business Australia (IBA)|
|Home Ownership on Indigenous Land||$1,092,000.00|
|Equity and Investments||$47,270,000.00|
|Home Ownership Programme||$117,937,000.00|
|Australian Remote Indigenous Accommodation 18||$0.00|
|Child Abuse Prevention 19||$2,556,000.00|
|Combating Petrol Sniffing||$996,000.00|
|Commonwealth State Housing Agreement 20||$94,439,000.00|
|Community Housing and Infrastructure Programme 21||$227,817,000.00|
|Virtual Funding Pool||$2,300,000.00|
|Family and Community Networks Initiative||$2,264,000.00|
|Family Income Management 23||$2,942,000.00|
|Family Violence Partnership Programme||$11,422,000.00|
|Family Violence Regional Activities Programme||$4,483,000.00|
|Improving Policing in Very Remote Areas||$4,467,000.00|
|Indigenous Affairs Litigation||$74,000.00|
|Indigenous Children's Programmes 24||$4,288,000.00|
|Indigenous Disability Advocacy Services||$284,424.00|
|Indigenous Leadership 25||$7,864,000.00|
|Native Title and Land Rights||$61,036,000.00|
|Payments Aboriginal Benefits Account (under the Aboriginal Land Rights (NT) Act 1976 s63)||$69,080,000.00|
|Payments to Universities and Other Organisations for Special Studies and Research||$1,914,000.00|
|Public Awareness 26||$2,723,000.00|
|Shared Responsibility Agreements Implementation Assistance 27||$34,255,000.00|
|Stronger Families and Communities Strategy: Family Initiatives||$2,489,000.00|
|Support for Child Care 28||$28,702,000.00|
|Aboriginal Hostels Limited|
|Community Operated Hostels 29||$6,589,000.00|
|Company Owned and Operated Hostels||$41,418,000.00|
|Indigenous Land Corporation|
|Assistance in the Acquisition and Management of Land 30||$75,681,110.00|
|Torres Strait Regional Authority|
|Community Development, Employment and Training||$32,095,000.00|
|Housing and Environmental Health Infrastructure||$9,280,000.00|
|Policy and Information||$2,593,000.0|
|Social, Cultural and Development||$9,773,000.00|
|Departmental NAIDOC Week/IAB||$168,113.00|
|Australian Electoral Commission|
|Indigenous Specific Expenditure||$481,000.00|
|Office of Evaluation and Audit||$4,940,000.00|
|Centrelink Indigenous Services 34||$63,387,100.00|
|Intervention to Reduce Smoking Among Pregnant Indigenous Women||$61,176.00|
|Access to Effective Family Tracing and Reunion Services||$4,843,000.00|
|Aged Care Strategy for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders-Residential Care||$17,767,000.00|
|Alternative Arrangements for the Delivery of Pharmaceutical Benefits||$26,814,991.00|
|Australian Hearing Special Programme for Indigenous Australians||$4,609,036.00|
|Building Healthy Communities in Remote Australia 35||$3,561,970.00|
|Capacity Building in Indigenous Communities||$1,311,894.00|
|Virtual Funding Pool||$7,800,000.00|
|Health Programme Grants-General Practice Services-Rural and Remote Areas of Northern Territory 36||$0.00|
|Health Services in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities||$414,408,687.00|
|Indigenous Coordinated Care Trials 37||$7,748,109.00|
|Indigenous Environmental Health Programme||$755,448.00|
|Indigenous Specific Immunisation||$2,685,000.00|
|Indigenous Specific Palliative Care 38||$95,176.00|
|Katherine West SmokeCheck project 39||$90,000.00|
|MBS item for Aboriginal Health Worker -Immunisation and Wound Management||$43,894.00|
|MBS item for Indigenous Adult Health Check for ATSI people aged 15 to 54 years||$3,236,000.00|
|Menzies School of Health Research Smoking Cessation Trial in the Groote Eylandt area of the Northern Territory 40||$22,000.00|
|National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Tobacco Project||$379,180.00|
|National Indigenous Chronic Disease Self Management Service Delivery Project||$535,990.00|
|National Indigenous Self Management Service Delivery Project -Sharing Health Care Initiatives||$585,996.00|
|National Rural Primary Health Projects||$593,972.00|
|National Suicide Prevention Strategy||$2,290,721.00|
|National Health and Medical Research Council Indigenous Research Grants||$23,960,140.00|
|Optimising Health Benefits with Aboriginal People who take Warfarin||$20,000.00|
|Petrol Sniffing Diversion Project||$729,393.00|
|Quality Assurance in Aboriginal Medical Services Programme||$587,209.00|
|Regional Health Services||$5,544,120.00|
|Section 19(2) Exemptions for Aboriginal Medical Services Under the Health Insurance Act||$21,937,000.00|
|Tough on Drugs Indigenous Communities Initiative||$3,828,442.00|
|Treatment Grants for Indigenous Specific Services||$2,894,929.00|
|Business Ready Programme for Indigenous Tourism 41||$1,060,441.00|
|Indigenous Cadetship 42||$44,094.00|
|Indigenous Communities/Mining Industry Working in Partnership Programme 43||$474,000.00|
|Tourism Niche Market Development (Indigenous Programme Delivery) 4||$608,314.00|
|Australian Public Service Commission|
|Indigenous Employment 45||$4,021,000.00|
|Indigenous Functions New Arrangements 46||$1,112,000.00|
|Virtual Funding Pool||$330,000.00|
|East Kimberley COAG Trial||$977,278.00|
|Regional Aerodrome Inspection Programme||$285,646.00|
|Australian Taxation Office|
|GST Field Compliance and Advisory Work||$887,740.00|
|Indigenous Liaison Officer||$105,335.00|
|National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Resource Centre||$449,831.00|
|Special Audiences Unit (Indigenous Unit)||$212,126.00|
|Developing and Reporting on key indicators of Indigenous disadvantage||$1,131,000.00|
|TOTAL AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT INDIGENOUS EXPENDITURE 2006–07||$3,224,124,581.00|
- Native Title Respondent Funding Scheme expenditure is not included in the Australian Government Indigenous Expenditure.
- All states and territories have been invited to enter into bilateral agreements with the Australian Government to reimburse them for up to 75% of some Native Title compensation costs and 50% of the cost of tribunals performing native title functions. Funds for such assistance have been appropriated as a Specific Purpose Payment since 1997–98. However, as no financial assistance agreements have been signed, no payments have been made.
- The amount of $843,609 was sourced from the Prevention, Diversion, Rehabilitation and Restorative Justice programme listed. This amount has been included in the total 2006–07 expenditure of this programme ($8,489,037). The remaining $602,879 was sourced from the Proceeds of Crime Act, which is a mainstream programme, not from Indigenous specific expenditure.
- New measure approved in 2006. Terminates 30 June 2010.
- This figure includes expenditure contributing to the Indigenous Employment Strategy and Inititiaives, Mawul Rom Project and ACT Policing expenditure on Indigenous Employment and Indigenous Crime Prevention.
- The variation in expenditure for 2006–07 resulted from delays in the implementation of key Indigenous strategic projects arising from the development of a new National Indigenous Arts Reference Group within the Australia Council. The timing of the contracting and expenditure of funds on key projects has been driven by the Group.
- The difference between the actual and the estimate is primarily due to the return of a grant provided to Indigenous Screen Australia, as it was unable to carry out all of the activities contemplated.
- Timing of project expenditure resulted in temporary underspending, subsequently paid out in new financial year.
- Actual expenditure includes costs incurred in respect to the upgrade of the Eora Gallery and a research project undertaken in April and June 2007.
- This figure is lower than last financial year because in 2005–06, SBS Indigenous online expenditure included significant upgrades for two Indigenous websites (the Living Black website and establishment of a site for the Indigenous drama series Remote Area Nurse).
- This figure is lower than last financial year because in 2005–06, SBS Indigenous Television expenditure included major Indigenous drama/feature productions which have now been either completed or are nearing completion.
- Project fully expensed in 2006–07.
- This programme is no longer reported under AGIE as it is not specific Indigenous expenditure.
- Proposed travel in support of Indigenous Weather Knowledge website not undertaken; no suitable applications identified for National Indigenous Cadetship Project.
- This is no longer an ongoing programme. It is repayment of outstanding student loans (debt).The debt is revalued at 30 June each year and the fair value recognised as an asset to the government.
- Included in this amount is a notional allocation for the Flexible Funding Pool including actual expense of $6 million in 2006–07.
- Included in the Community Development Employment Projects and Indigenous Employment Programme amounts is a notional allocation for the Flexible Funding Pool including actual expense of $6 million in 2006–07.
- Will be reported in 2007–08. No expenditure reported in 2006–07.
- Includes REACh (Responding Early Assisting Children) Programme.
- Includes the Aboriginal Rental Housing Programme.
- This represents a re-phasing request for approximately $60 million, as there are unspent funds which will be moved from 2006–07 to 2007–08.
- The increase is the result of the full-year effect of the transfer of Indigenous Affairs functions to FaCSIA.
- Includes Improving Financial Outcomes for Indigenous Children.
- Includes Indigenous Parenting and Family Well-Being.
- Office of Indigenous Policy Coordination moving to FaCSIA in the January 2006 machinery of government change has resulted in some programmes' expenditure only having part year figures previously reported.
- This programme was previously known as Public Information.
- Expenditure for 2006–07 included the utilisation of re-phased prior year funding. This programme is now part of the Indigenous Communities Strategic Investment Fund following the FaCSIA 2007–08 Budget.
- Includes MACS, Flexible Multipurpose Centre-Based Services, Mobile Services/Toy Libraries, Outside School Hours Care/Vacation Care Services, Indigenous Playgroups and Indigenous Jobs, Education and Training (JET) Programme Creche.
- Department of Health and Ageing grant of $1,852,000 is not included in this total.
- Office of Indigenous Policy Coordination moving to FaCSIA in the January 2006 machinery of government change has resulted in some programmes' expenditure only having part year figures previously reported.
- Includes Indigenous Cadetship Programme and Roni Ellis Study Awards.
- Indigenous Exporter Programme.
- NAIDOC Week.
- These figures are based on internal budgeting parameters, revenue for some specific initiatives and other available information and estimates.
- The majority of the projects that comprise the Building Healthy Communities in remote Australia initiative were being setup during 2005–06.
- This programme finished in 2005–06.
- Funding for the Indigenous Coordinated Care Trials terminated in December 2006. The amount reported in 2006– 07 therefore reflects part year funding.
- The programme is a mainstream programme that seeks to include an appropriate focus on Indigenous projects. Projects are selected for funding through a competitive grants process.
- This programme started and finished in 2006–07.
- This programme started and finished in 2006–07.
- Actual expense figure is only for administered funds.
- The programme normally budgets for two cadets per financial year. However, this financial year there were three cadets for part of the year.
- Salary expenditure less than forecast.
- Overspend is due to two key projects costing more than originally budgeted for plus two additional projects that were not budgeted for.
- This amount includes $445,000 paid to other Australian Government agencies to fund their employment and training of Indigenous staff.
- This represents the expenditure for the Indigenous Policy Branch of the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet and does not include the resourcing provided in the department for work on Indigenous issues in specific policy areas.
Glossary of acronyms
|CAP||Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples Complementary Action Plan 2003–2009|
|AHL||Aboriginal Hostels Limited|
|ARHP||Aboriginal Rental Housing Programme|
|ARLS||Advancement of Rights to Land and Sea|
|AHSPIA||Australian Hearing Specialist Programme for Indigenous Australians|
|ANAO||Australian National Audit Office|
|ARIA||Australian Remote Indigenous Accommodation Programme|
|APS||Australian Public Service|
|BIA||Backing Indigenous Ability|
|ISBF||Business Development Programme and the Indigenous Small Business Fund|
|CDEP||Community Development Employment Projects|
|CHIP||Community Housing and Infrastructure Programme|
|CLIEP||Corporate Leaders for Indigenous Employment Project|
|COAG||Council of Australian Governments|
|FaCSIA||Department of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs|
|FCNI||Family Community Network Initiative|
|FIM||Family Income Management|
|FVPP||Family Violence Partnership Programme|
|FVPLS||Family Violence Prevention Legal Services|
|FVRAP||Family Violence Regional Activities Programme|
|FFP||Flexible Funding Pool|
|IBP||Indigenous Broadcasting Programme|
|IBA||Indigenous Business Australia|
|ICP||Indigenous Children Programme|
|ICC||Indigenous Coordination Centre|
|IECs||Indigenous Employment Centres|
|IHP||Indigenous Heritage Programme|
|ILC||Indigenous Land Corporation|
|ISOs||Indigenous service officers|
|ISP||Indigenous Support Programme|
|ITAS||Indigenous Tutorial Assistance Scheme|
|IYLP||Indigenous Youth Leadership Programme|
|ICT||information communication technology|
|MILR||Maintenance of Indigenous Languages and Records|
|MIP||Major Infrastructure Programme|
|MCDS||Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy|
|MACS||Multifunctional Aboriginal Children's Services|
|NACIS||National Arts and Crafts Industry Support|
|NIC||National Indigenous Council|
|NIMMA||National Indigenous Money Management Agenda|